Client Server Chat with WCF

Almost a year after I wrote this post promising to keep WCF Chat updated, I’m living up to that promise and updating my WCF Chat application over on Codeplex. The original release on Codeplex is actually just a zip file with the project in it. All things considered it was a knee-jerk posting in the mist of the openFF effort to clone Friendfeed. Of course, the original, actual reason why I posted it is lost to history. And in the middle of all that  hoohah I never wrote an introduction to and an explanation of the codebase.

An Introduction


The WCF Chat application was actually a class assignment for a class that included, among other things, WCF, REST and TCP. Its actually interesting to see how that class has changed since I took it three years ago. This year, for example, its including MVC, but I digress. The fact is that my submission did go above and beyond the requirements. And the reason for that is that once I wrote the basic logic, the more complicated stuff was easy. In other words: given enough layers of abstractions, anything is easy.

Having dusted off and worked with the code for a few hours, its rather amazing how easy a chat application is. Now, that statement should be taken in the context of the fact that WCF is doing most of the heavy lifting. So getting the client to ask for data is a relatively trivial task. The tricky bit is the need for a callback.

In this case, I use callbacks for Direct Messages and File transfers. Now, you are probably wonder why I went through the trouble given that the sensible option is simply to poll a server. And it is a sensible option. Tweetdeck, Seesmic and other twitter clients all use polling. Basically, it was in the requirements that there should be two way communication. There are a number of way sto implement this. One could, for example, have a WCF service on the client that the server can call back to. This did occur to me, but its a complex and heavy handed approach, not to mention a resource intensive one. WCF always gives me headaches and so I was only going to do one service. So I wrote a TCP listener that received pings from the server on a particular port.

Thats one peculiarity about this app. The other is the way the server is actually written. We have the WCF service implementation and we have a second server class that the WCF service calls. There is a division of responsibility between the two. The service is always responsible for getting the data ready for transmission and the server does the actual application logic.

The client is fairly straightforward. It uses the Kryton Library from the Component Factory. Its a great UI library that I use anytime I have to write a Windows forms UI. The actual UI code is rather like the Leaning Tower of Pisa – its damn fragile. Basically because it relies on the component designer logic for the way controls are layered. So I haven’t touched it at all. In fact, I haven’t needed to. More on this later.

When you are looking at the client code, you’ll realise that for each type of message control, there is a message type base control. The reason for this is that I foolishly (and successfully) tried to use generic controls. In the current implementation, there is actually precious little code in the MessageBase control. The reason  for this is mainly historical. There was originally a lot of code in there, mainly event code. In testing, I discovered that  those events weren’t actually firing for reasons beyond understanding. So they were moved from the inherited class to the inheriting class.  This is the generic control.

There are message type base controls that inherit from the MessageBase control, and pass in the type (Post, DM, File). This control is in turn inherited by the actual Message, DM or File control. The reason for this long inheritance tree is that the designer will not display generic controls. Rather, that was the case. I’ve yet to actually try it with Visual Studio 2010 Designer. As I said, I haven’t changed the client UI code and architecture at all.

The client has a background thread that runs a TCP Listener to  listen for call backs from the server. Its on a background thread so that it does not block the UI thread. I used a background worker for this rather than the newer Task functionality built into .Net 4 that we have today.



Basically, every one sees all the public messages on a given server. There is no mechanism to follow specific people or ever to filter the stream by those usernames. Archaic, I know, But I’m writing my chat application, not Twitter.

There are Direct Messages that can be directed to a specific user. Because the server issues callbacks for DM’s, they appear almost instantly in the users stream.

You can send files to specific users as well. These files are stored on the server when you sent them. The server will issue a call back to the user and the file will be sent to them when the client responds to that callback.  You can also forward a file you have received to another user. Files are private only by implication. They are able to be accessed by whoever is informed of the files existence.

All of the above messages are persisted on the server. However, forwarding messages is not persisted in any shape or form.

Also, you can set status. This status is visible only when you are logged in. In fact, your username is only visible to others when you are logged in.

It should be noted that you have to use the Server Options panel to add and remove users.

Todays Release


Todays changes basically upgrade everything to .Net 4  and make sure its compatible. Todays release does not take advantage of anything new other than some additional LINQ and extension methods. Taking advantage of the new stuff will require a careful think of how and where to use them. I’m not quite willing to sacrifice a working build for new code patterns that do the exact same thing.

The original server was actually just a console application. I took that original code and ported it to a Windows Service. There were trivial logic changes made at most. The UI ( i.e the Options form) that was part of that console application has been moved into its own project.

I also ported the server code to a Windows Azure web role. And let me tell you something- it was even easier that I had anticipated. The XML file and the collections I stored the streams  in  are replaced with Windows Azure Tables for Users, Streams, DMS and Files. The files themselves are written to Windows Azure Blobs rather than being written out to disk. 

The web role as written is actually single instance. The reason is that the collection that stores the active users (i.e. what users are active right now) is still a collection. I haven’t moved it moved it over to windows azure tables yet. You could fire up more than one instance of this role, but all of them would have a different list of active users. And because Windows Azure helpfully provides you with a load balancer, there’s no guaranteeing which instance is going to respond to the client. There is a reason why i haven’t move that collection over to Windows Azure Tables. Basically, I’m not happy with it. If Azure had some sort of caching tier, using Velocity or something so i could instantiate a collection of objects to the cache and have all instances share that collection. The Windows Azure table would be changing from minute to minute with Additions, Edits and Deletions and I don’t think Windows Azure Tables would keep up. I’m interested to now what you think of this.

I also added an Options application to talk to the Windows Azure Web Role, and I wrote a WCF web service in webrole to support this application.

The client  is essentially the same as it has always been. There is the addition of a domain when you are logging in – this could be for either cloud or service based server implementations. Since there is no default domain, the client needs one when you are logging in.  The client will ask for one when logging in. once you have provided one, you’ll have to restart the application.

There are installers for all the applications except for the Cloud project. The service installer will install both the service and the Options application.

Bear in mind that for the Options Applications, there is no authentication and authorisation. If you run the app on a server with the ChatServer installed, or you point the CloudOptions app at the appropriate server, you are in control. This is a concern to me and will be fixed in a future release.

Future changes


I was tempted to write a HTTP POST server for all this. MVC makes it so easy to implement. There would be plenty of XML flying back and forth. Some of the WCF operations would require some high-wire gymnastics to implement as HTTP POST, but its possible. I might to this.

The one thing that I didn’t update was the version of the Kryton UI library I use. I’d very much like to use the latest version to write a new UI from scratch. Again its a possibility.

The fact is that once you start thinking of implementing following a la twitter, your database schema suddenly looks much more complicated. And since I’m not writing Twitter, I’ll pass.

If you have any suggestions on future changes, holler.

Final Words


Bear in mind that for the Options Applications, there is no authentication and authorisation. If you run the app on a server with the ChatServer installed, or you point the CloudOptions app at the appropriate server, you are in control. This is a concern to me and will be fixed in a future release.

Also, bear in mind that this is marked Alpha for a reason. If it eats your homework and scares your dog, its not my fault – I’m just some guy that writes code.

Finally, this code all works IN THEORY. I’ll be testing all these pieces throughly in the coming weeks.

Where you can get it


You can get it off Codeplex. The source code for all the above mentioned components is checked into SVN source control.

For this 1.1 Alpha release, you’ll find each setup files for each component in a separate downloadable zip file. The CloudServer code is included as is, since no setup files are possible for Cloud projects.

3 thoughts on “Client Server Chat with WCF

  1. Hi ,
    great work in getting this out .
    I wanted to see if you have made any changes to this application since Dec 2010 , Or are you planning any upgrades in future ?
    I am more interested in authentication and authorization bit.
    also MVC ..
    Can we connect offline it will be great ?

    1. Hi there,

      No, I Haven’t been able to make in any changes sine my last comit.

      However, I have been taking a look at it over the past week, since there are issues with it. As you say authentication and authorisation are one of them.

      I’ve been looking at the possibility of using Forms authentication. This brings ASP.Net Membership, Profiles and Roles to the table and these can be used.

      This of course requires a SQL server as a back end. And requires the use of SSL.

      This requires significant changes to the code base, to move from the current storage model (XML in the case of the Windows service, and Azure Tables in the case of the Windows Azure role). And since authorisation and authentication are now handled separately, those WCF method calls that currently handle this aren’t required.

      Also, since the codebase is effectively two separate projects, these changes need to be made twice.

      The client will also need to be changed.

      These changes do make a lot of sense and I’m well along in implementing them. So look out for a post soon on them.

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